4.1 Definition of the area
Learning pathways – are natural or specially developed trails, which performs different functions depending on the type of trail. Learning pathways develop plural learning that involves adults and children; together they can create and recreate the routes as they please and at the same time explore them. They can be created with different motor severity to adapt to different ages as well as children with disabilities.
There are different types of learning pathways:
- Nature trail - by man trampled path with natural surface sand, stones, clay, plants etc. It can be grass, sand path. Children can explore flora and fauna, soil. This area is good for nature observation, research, develop social, motor and cognitive skills. This path contributes to the harmony of man and nature. Children can explore animal and birds’ tracks on the path.
- Sensory path – the path, which is developed from different materials, mostly natural materials. This path consists of elements. Children can be involved in creating sensory path. The variety of natural material depends on climatic features. Possible materials for sensory path: sand, pebbles, bark of tree, cones, moss, water, mud, clay, mulch, tree cuts etc. Children can walk on the trail in shoes and barefoot. This trail develops: concentration, motor skills, the senses through touching, smell, sight, hearing, feeling.
- Obstacle course- the course for traveling on foot, children must overcome various physical challenges in the form of obstacles. Obstacles can be made from different materials. Obstacle courses promote cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, gross motor development, coordination, sequencing, balance. Obstacle courses promote playful actions providing amusement and enjoyment. Obstacle courses promote the ability to follow verbal directions, confidence and satisfaction or pride in oneself.
- Learning path on the asphalt – graphic path on the asphalt, it can be painted with paints or chalk. It consists of different tasks for developing motor skills, coordination, spatial orientation, mathematical concepts, language development and development of social skills. Movement paths help develop social skills: how to wait your turns, resolve conflicts, and solve issues. When children play together, they learn how to manage their emotions, and behaviour. Movement on the paths helps improve learning, puts children in a better mood, and helps with stress.
Learning pathways can connect different rooms in the outdoor environment at the same time as they can be used for a defining purpose.
4.2 Learning Objectives
- TO DEVEOLP MATH SKILLS:
To learn numbers, colours, geometric shapes, measuring skills, to develop logical thinking. To experience the concepts of mathematics through different ways (e.g. Number of steps for distance, speed of walking, quantity of flowers/trees, separating things they collect in half, identifying the fewer quantity as opposed to more)
- TECHNICAL SKILLS:
Practical math, measuring and comparing skills
- SENSORY SKILLS:
To interact with the environment and collect information (discovering the environment through senses): sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch, and the detection of movement
- ORIENTATION SKILLS:
Determination of child's location relative to the elements of the surrounding space, to move in different directions. To improve the ability to move with skill and safety in the space
- PHYSICAL SKILLS:
To develop gross and fine motor skills, coordination, and balance to perform a certain task
4.3 Curriculum References
Reference: p.25, p.29
Content: Children become aware of their body, using it from birth as an instrument of self-knowledge in the world. (p.25).
Moving is the first learning factor: searching, discovering, playing, jumping, running at school is a source of well-being and psycho-physical balance. Moving in space, children choose and follow the most suitable paths to reach a predetermined goal by discovering geometric concepts such as direction and angle. (p-29)
Area of development: Mental empowerment
Keystone 1: Conceptual understanding - Aim: Children to interact with the environment and collect information (discovering the environment through senses); Identify similarities and differences across objects and situations (though the process of observation).
Mental empowerment – Keystone 1: Page 59
The key recommended practices offered are the following:
- The provision of exploring opportunities of specific subjects (e.g. musical instruments, balls etc.), the creation of a collection (e.g. leaves collection that we gather from the school yard)
- The children to tidy up cooking utensils in baskets, to tidy up furniture of the doll house etc.
- Creation of a spatial diagram or illustration (younger children) or a histogram (older children) based on the selection of specific objects or situations (e.g. fruit or toy I like)
Keystone 10.5, p. 3
Keystone 10.7, p. 4
- In mathematics teaching, the child determines the composition of a number in ten volumes, makes various variations of the number composition, assumes and checks the number in figures and sets of objects, denotes the corresponding number, writes numbers, determines length, area and capacity, measures the length of a ruler, learns geometric shapes, including spatial bodies, describes their shape and relates them to familiar objects, sorts objects by multiple attributes, and compares them by number and size (using the words "more", "less", "larger", " smaller "), names the location of objects in space and plane (using the words" v "," under "," at "," behind "," beside "," right "," left "), creatively and appropriately for a given condition, make rhythmic rows and arrays of objects and geometric shapes.
- The child takes pleasure in indoor and outdoor activities and creates healthy lifestyle habits, moves around different obstacle courses and participates in movement games, combining walking, running, crawling, climbing, balancing, moving objects and overcoming obstacles, versatile use of fine motor skills.
- At the end of pre-school education, the child has acquired the following basics of skills, which include values and virtues, transversal skills and knowledge, understanding and basic skills.
Reference:p. 13 to p. 15.
The preschool should provide each child with the conditions to develop:
openness, respect, solidarity, and responsibility
- Independence and trust in their own ability
- Curiosity, creativity, and desire to play and learn
- An ability to function individually and in a group, corporate, manage conflicts and understand rights and obligations, and to assume responsibility for common rules
- An ability to listen to and reflect on other people's perceptions, and to reflect and express their own beliefs
- Fantasy and imagination
- Motor skills, coordination, and body perception, and understanding how important caring for their health and well-being
- A nuanced spoken language and vocabulary, as well as the ability to play with words, relate things, express thoughts, ask questions, put forward arguments and communicate with others in different contexts and for different purposes
- Understanding of space, time and form, and basic properties of sets, patterns, quantities, order, numbers, measurement, and change, and to reason mathematically about this